Shadow Ridge Miniature Donkeys

Registered Miniature Mediterranean Donkeys

 

Donkey, Mule, Horse Tack, Equipment,

Gifts, and Supplies

 

100% Pure Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth

 

Site Map

 

Welcome to Our World....

Registered Miniature Donkeys playing-Shadow Ridge Donkeys

Home - About Us - FAQS - Products - Classifieds - Contact Us - Picture Gallery - Donkey Info & Links - Donkey Rescues - Search

Shadow Ridge

Donkey, Mule & Horse Products

 

'Bags and Tings' by Annie Caswell:

Prints, Checkbooks Covers and Tote Bags

 

Books:

Answers To Your Mule Questions

 

Confidence Training for the Western Saddle Mule

 

The Hard to Catch Mule

 

Opening Doors: An equilog of poetry about Donkeys by Jenny L Bates

 

Children's Books:

Janie's New Legs

 

Horse Tails by Mookie the Mustang

So You Wanna be a Cowgirl

More

 

Diatomaceous Earth Book: "Going Green Using Diatomaceous Earth -

How-to-tips"

Diatomaceous Earth Book: "Going Green Using Diatomaceous Earth -

Pure Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth from:

Food Grade DE, Diatomaceous Earth, CODEX, Fossil Shell Flour

and

Shadow Ridge Food Grade DE

 

 Handmade Miniature Donkey & Donkey Fly Masks

Also Custom Fly Protection Leggings

 

Donkey Wall Hanging

ORIGINAL ART starting with the initial sculpture with meticulous attention to detail from making the mold to pouring the clay....
 

Donkey & Mule DVD's

-Donkey Training

-Starting Over With Rachel the Troubled Mule

Mule Training DVD 

 

Donkey Ornaments

 & Figurines

Donkey Angel

 

Donkey & Miniature Donkey Puzzles

 

Donkey Signs

Drive Slow young donkeys old donkeys and one old jackass at play

 

Donkey & Horse Signs Aluminum

Entering Donkey Country

 

Donkey Mini Halters

Made by the Amish of Ohio Basic Nylon Halters

also Lead RopesHope new Green Halter and Lead

 

Miniature Donkey Rope Halters

The Original Mini Donk™ & Mini Hoss™ Rope Halters

 

Milo at 4 weeks wearing an X small rope halter.

 

Hoof Wraps Bandage

Hoof Wraps is made of 1680 ballistic nylon with a triple layer at the toe for durability.The Quick Fix Hoof Wraps

 

 

Horse Metal Xing Signs  

Street Sign Horse Breed Place

 

 

Lead Ropes: Made by the Amish of Ohio

 

Seat Cushions specially designed with a recessed area to take the pressure off the tailbone

Comftable-Blue


 

Thanks so much to all of you who have  visited our  affiliates below.

 

Donkey/ Mule T-Shirts& Gifts

Many more donkey and mule designs being offered by artist on Zazzle

 

 

Donkey & Mule Custom Designed T-shirts, Gifts and much more.

What's next, dressage? Donkey Mug mug

 

Horse T-Shirts and Gifts

Zazzle

Miniature Donkey Keychain

 

 Miniature Donkey Key chain

 

Thanks so much to all of you who have  visited our  affiliates.

More:  Affiliate Links Menu

 

 

 Master Card, Visa, American Express, Discover, Bank Card--Cards Accepted

PayPal uses SSL encryption

Is PayPal safe to use?
PayPal  protects your credit card information with industry-leading security and fraud prevention systems. When you use PayPal, your financial information is never shared with the merchant.
 

Mail-in Order Form with a check, money order or credit card. NC residents please add 6.75% Sales Tax when ordering

Official PayPal Seal

We are shipping only to USA addresses at this time. International orders may contact us for additional shipping charges.

 [top of page]

 

Back to Article List Animal Parasitic Diseases Site Logo
 
Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture
 
 
Research Project: BIOSYSTEMATICS AND BIODIVERSITY OF PATHOGENS AND PARASITES

Location: Animal Parasitic Diseases

Title: A NATURAL INFECTION OF MINIATURE DONKEYS WITH THE SARCOCCOIDAL PROTOZOA BESNOITIA BENNETTI

 

Authors
 
item Elsheikha, Hany - MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
item Mackenzie, Charles - WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIV
item Rosenthal, Benjamin
item Marteniuk, Judith - MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
item Steficek, Barbara - MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
item Windsor, Sharon - CROSSROADS DONKEY RESCUE
item Saeed, Mahdi - MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
item Mansfield, Linda - MICHIGAN STATE UNIV

 

Submitted to: Journal of Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 29, 2004
Publication Date: August 1, 2005
Citation: Elsheikha, H.M., Mackenzie, C.D., Rosenthal, B.M., Marteniuk, J.V., Steficek, B., Windsor, S., Saeed, M.A., Mansfield, L.S. 2005. A natural infection of miniature donkeys with the sarcoccoidal protozoa besnoitia bennetti. Journal of Parasitology.91(4):877-881.

 

Interpretive Summary: Parasite species of the genus Besnoitia form visible, white nodules in the muscles, connective tissue, and various organs of herbivorous hosts. Macroscopic cysts, which can attain sizes large enough to be readily seen and felt, can cause livestock carcasses to be condemned. The clinical spectrum can range from inapparent infection to severe disease, resulting in weight loss, depression, systemic problems, often complicated by bacterial superinfection. The health consequences of human infection with parasites of this genus has yet to be defined, although concern is raised by the serious public health risk posed by Toxoplasma gondii, a related coccidian parasite. Here, a rare outbreak of Besnoitia bennetti is described in donkeys. Parasites ascribed to this species have been recognized in various equids. This manuscript provides a careful account of the clinical, epidemiological, morphological, and genetic characteristics of the parasites implicated in this outbreak. ARS's contribution includes the first genetic characterization of this parasite, which may aid future diagnostic efforts and which should also provide a means to determine what carnivore may expose equids to risk of such infection.

Technical Abstract: Besnoitiosis is an uncommonly detected protozoal infection of a wide range of species, including equids. Fourteen miniature donkeys (Equus asinus) in a herd of 38 animals resident in a mid-Michigan farm presented with clinical signs of besnoitiosis. These animals showed different intensities of an essentially similar clinically picture, which included cysts (¿pearls¿) in the ocular sclera, the sub-mucosa of the inner lip, and the eyelids and external nares of some animals. Focal areas of rough lichenified skin with raised small dermal nodules were present on the head, the base of the ears, the shoulders and in the inner aspects of the hind limbs as well as the perineal and perivulvar regions. These lesions did not appear to be pruritic. Examination by light and ultrastructural microscopy of isolated scleral cysts and skin biopsies showed the presence of protozoal organisms consistent in morphology with that of Besnoitia bennetti bradyzoites. The common histopathological change seen was the presence of many 100-200 um diameter, thick walled, Besnoitia cysts together with a chronic cellular response. Minor peri-vascular cellular accumulations of plasma cells, lymphocytes and scattered eosinophils were present around some vessels. Degenerating cysts, when present, were involved in granulomatous cellular responses and were most common in the animal undergoing treatment with trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole (1.0mg/Kg and 20mg/Kg daily for 42 day); this treatment resulted in a some clinical improvement. Although this infection has been reported infrequently in equids in Africa as well as in the USA, this is the first report of a significant outbreak in a herd of donkeys. Besnoitiosis should therefore be considered more often in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular diseases in the donkey. The presence of the distinct ocular signs (scleral pearls) together with the buccal sub-mucosal cysts and the nodular dermal lesions appear to be strong and consistent clinical indicators of the presence of this infection.

     
Last Modified: 12/24/2008

Shadow and Cocoa Logo

Home | About Us | Products | Contact Us | Site Map & Search | Donkey & Mule Information | Donkey Rescues |  Picture Gallery | Shipping | Returns | Privacy Policy  

Note: We are shipping only to USA addresses at this time.

Your continuing support of our products and affiliate links throughout this site help us inform and promote the Miniature Donkey breed and Donkeys everywhere whether you are just starting out or

have your loved one already.  Thanks so much! Cheryl and Chris

We are shipping only to USA addresses at this time. International orders may contact us for additional shipping charges.



 

Copyright ©2004-2011 Shadow Ridge. All Rights Reserved.

Monday, February 25, 2013

For problems or questions regarding this web contact corlowski@windstream.net

Free JavaScripts provided
by The JavaScript Source